The development of vaccines is one of the most significant medical accomplishments which has helped to eradicate a large number of diseases. It has undergone an evolutionary process from live attenuated pathogen vaccine to killed whole organisms or inactivated toxins (toxoids), each of them having its own advantages and disadvantages. The crucial parameters in vaccination are the generation of memory response and protection against infection, while an important aspect is the effective delivery of antigen in an intelligent manner to evoke a robust immune response. In this regard, nanotechnology is greatly contributing to developing efficient vaccine adjuvants and delivery systems. These can protect the encapsulated antigen from the host’s in-vivo environment and releasing it in a sustained manner to induce a long-lasting immunostimulatory effect. In view of this, the present review article summarizes nanoscale-based adjuvants and delivery vehicles such as viral vectors, virus-like particles and virosomes; non-viral vectors namely nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, biodegradable and non-degradable nanoparticles, calcium phosphate nanoparticles, colloidally stable nanoparticles, proteosomes; and pattern recognition receptors covering c-type lectin receptors and toll-like receptors.

View full article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066039/

Petkar KC, Patil SM, Chavhan SS, Kaneko K, Sawant KK, Kunda NK, Saleem IY. An Overview of Nanocarrier-Based Adjuvants for Vaccine Delivery. Pharmaceutics. 2021 Mar 27;13(4):455. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13040455. PMID: 33801614; PMCID: PMC8066039.